Download e-book for iPad: Alchemy (Dover Books on Engineering) by E. J. Holmyard

By E. J. Holmyard

ISBN-10: 048615114X

ISBN-13: 9780486151144

Alchemy is assumed to have originated over 2000 years in the past in Hellenic Egypt, the results of 3 converging streams: Greek philosophy, Egyptian expertise and the mysticism of center jap religions. Its heyday was once from approximately 800 A.D. to the center of the 17th century, and its practitioners ranged from kings, popes, and emperors to minor clergy, parish clerks, smiths, dyers, and tinkers. Even such comprehensive males as Roger Bacon, Thomas Aquinas, Sir Thomas Browne and Isaac Newton became interested in alchemical matters.

In its look for the "Philosopher's Stone" that may transmute base metals into silver and gold, alchemy took on many philosophical, spiritual and mystical overtones. those and plenty of different points of alchemy are explored with huge, immense perception and erudition during this vintage paintings. E. J. Holmyard, a famous student within the box, starts with the alchemists of old Greece and China and is going directly to talk about alchemical gear, Islamic and early Western alchemy; symptoms, symbols, and mystery phrases; Paracelsus; English, Scottish and French alchemists; Helvetius, cost, and Semler, and lots more and plenty more.

Ranging over millennia of alchemical heritage, Mr. Holmyard exhibits how, like astrology and witchcraft, alchemy was once a vital part of the pre-scientific ethical order, arousing the cupidity of princes, the blind worry of mobs and the highbrow interest of discovered males. finally, even though, with the arrival and ascension of the medical approach, the hopes and concepts of the alchemists light to the prestige of "pseudo-science." That transformation, in addition to alchemy's indisputable position as a precursor of contemporary chemistry, are brilliantly illuminated during this e-book. scholars of alchemy, chemistry, the background of technology, and the occult, plus a person attracted to the starting place and evolution of 1 of mankind's so much enduring and influential myths, should want to have a replica of this masterly learn.

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La seconde, indépendamment de la différence de leurs points de vue, cela ne peut, en effet, s’interpréter que de trois manières : ou bien ils sont victimes d’une erreur de mesure (c’est-à-dire que le fait expérimental de la constance de la vitesse de la lumière est illusoire), ou bien il faut renoncer à toute composition des vitesses, ou enfin il faut admettre que l’horloge de l’observateur mobile marche plus lentement et qu’une seconde indiquée sur son cadran comporte une durée dilatée par rapport aux unités de temps marquées sur l’horloge de l’observateur immobile.

Notons en outre l’intérêt spécial que présente, pour l’épistémologie physique, l’analyse génétique des opérations temporelles. Chacun sait, en effet, que la mesure du temps s’enferme dans un cercle : nous fondons le réglage de nos horloges sur certains processus physiques à déroulement temporel constant NOTIONS CINÉMATIQUES ET MÉCANIQUES 31 (tels la régularité des mouvements astronomiques ou l’isochronisme des petites oscillations), mais, en retour, nous ne sommes assurés de cette constance que grâce à des mesures effectuées précisément au moyen de nos horloges.

Au contraire dès 7-8 ans, on aura toujours AB < AC < AD < etc. De ce point de vue, la simultanéité, conçue selon l’opération (3) comme une succession nulle, peut aussi être comprise comme une durée nulle : " B, alors AB = O. o! De même de (3) et de (4) le sujet peut tirer l’égalité des durées synchrones. , alors des durées a1b1 et a2b2 seront égales ; de même b1c1 et b2c2, etc. , soit AB, BC, etc. , alors a1b1 = a2b2 = AB ; b1c1 = b2c2 = BC ; etc. Ainsi, grâce à ces cinq groupements d’opérations (1) à (5), le temps qualitatif est entièrement constitué, indépendamment de toute métrique : le sujet est capable de construire un ordre de succession temporelle entre événements (ou entre états caractérisés par des événements respectivement simultanés), d’emboîter les durées les unes dans les autres en fonction de cet ordre, de concevoir des simultanéités à titre de succession ou de durée nulles, et d’égaliser des durées synchrones en fonction de la simultanéité des événements entre lesquels elles NOTIONS CINÉMATIQUES ET MÉCANIQUES 39 sont comprises.

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Alchemy (Dover Books on Engineering) by E. J. Holmyard

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