L. Beranek's Acoustical Measurements (rev.) PDF

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Extra resources for Acoustical Measurements (rev.)

Sample text

3), even when the limit RL ∞ is reimposed. This is because the op-amp output resistance ro is now accounted for, whereas it was not included in the slightly simplified derivation of Eq. 3). Now let us determine the special value for a load resistance RL such that the closed-loop gain from Eq. 11) becomes just half the value it has when RL ∞—this will of course then equal the output resistance we are seeking. 13) which is the required expression for the output resistance of the noninverting amplifier.

This effect is caused by internal circuit characteristics of the op-amp itself. It is common practice to express amplifier gain in units of decibels (dB), where the definition is contained in G(dB) = 20 log [Vout/Vin]. 12. Illustration of relative ma­ gnitudes of a hypothetical ac signal in­ creased and decreased in 5 dB increments. As a visual aid to the decibel scale, Fig. 12 shows a hypothetical reference signal (in boldface), which serves as the 0 dB level, together with waveforms at + 5 dB, - 5 dB, and - 1 0 dB.

1 NONINVERTING AMPLIFIER Consider the schematic in Fig. 3. The combination of R1 and RF acts as a simple voltage divider on Vout, so Also, from the fundamental relationship for a differential amplifier, Vout = A [ V i n - V 1 ] . 3. Noninverting amplifier based on a single op-amp. 40 5. 2) The square bracket in this equation is a numerical factor relating output to input voltage for the particular configuration selected here. If the circuit in Fig. 3 is taken as a single entity with an input and an output, then this numerical factor is its gain.

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Acoustical Measurements (rev.) by L. Beranek

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