Download e-book for kindle: A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation by Hanan Frenk

By Hanan Frenk

ISBN-10: 0306472325

ISBN-13: 9780306472329

ISBN-10: 0792372255

ISBN-13: 9780792372257

Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the foremost issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. professionals reminiscent of the medical professional common of the us and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This ebook is a critique of the nicotine dependancy speculation, in keeping with a severe assessment of the study literature that purports to end up that nicotine is as addictive drug. The assessment is predicated on a re-assessment of greater than seven hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental stories, results of `nicotine alternative therapies', and lots of different proper resources. This assessment concludes that on current proof, there's each cause to reject the widely accredited thought that nicotine has a huge position in cigarette smoking. A severe exam of the standards for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met by means of nicotine, and that it truly is more likely that nicotine in reality limits relatively than allows smoking.

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Additional info for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors)

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As we saw in this chapter and the previous one, the definition of drug addiction has changed over the years so it is no longer defined by physical dependence. Drug dependence, under the new definitions, is no more than a compulsive habit that involves drugs. The new definitions, unlike the classical pharmacological one, do not specify anything about the properties of the drug; specifically, they say nothing about how these properties may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of the habit.

6. HABIT CRAVING, WITHDRAWAL, AND RELAPSE Compulsive habits are defined by a strong urge, or craving, to perform a certain act, such as pulling hair, binge eating, washing hands, stealing or masturbating. Performance of the act relieves the craving and may be accompanied by pleasure. Blockage of compulsive habits is accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, which always include increased craving to perform the blocked habitual activity, but may include also arousal, irritability, discomfort, insomnia, anxiety or depression.

Moreover, whereas we are probably genetically prone to learn habits, we do not seem so prone to unlearn them. This makes evolutionary sense. Learning new habits to free our attention to demanding tasks is essential to survival. This process is typically progressive: as we grow up, we develop more and more habits so that we can perform more and more routine activities without requiring costly attentional resources. The need to undo a habit is much less common. 2 Good and Bad Habits We commonly speak of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ habits.

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A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors) by Hanan Frenk

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