By Ben Klemens
Throw out your outdated principles approximately C and get to grasp a programming language that’s considerably outgrown its origins. With this revised version of twenty first Century C, you’ll realize up to date options lacking from different C tutorials, no matter if you’re new to the language or simply getting reacquainted.
C isn’t simply the root of contemporary programming languages; it's a glossy language, excellent for writing effective, state of the art functions. Get prior idioms that made experience on mainframes and study the instruments you want to paintings with this developed and aggressively basic language. it doesn't matter what programming language you presently prefer, you’ll fast see that twenty first century C rocks.
* organize a C programming setting with shell amenities, makefiles, textual content editors, debuggers, and reminiscence checkers
* Use Autotools, C’s de facto cross-platform package deal manager
* find out about the troublesome C strategies too precious to discard
* remedy C’s string-building issues of C-standard functions
* Use sleek syntactic positive factors for capabilities that take established inputs
* construct high-level, object-based libraries and programs
* practice complex math, consult net servers, and run databases with present C libraries
This version additionally contains new fabric on concurrent threads, digital tables, C99 numeric kinds, and different beneficial properties.
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Extra resources for 21st Century C: C Tips from the New School (2nd Edition)
If you don’t have pkg-config, then you’ll have to do this sort of research yourself, by reading the manual for your library or searching your disk as we saw previously. There are often environment variables for paths, such as CPATH or LIBRARY_PATH or C_INCLUDE_PATH. bashrc or other such user-specific list of environment vari‐ ables. They are hopelessly nonstandard—gcc on Linux and gcc on the Mac use different variables, and any other compiler may use others still. I find that it’s easier to set these paths on a per-project basis in the makefile or its equivalent, using -I and -L flags.
Indeed, after you pinpoint a bug using the debugger, it is worth taking the time to consider what underlying problem and failure of understanding you have just dis‐ covered, and whether it replicates itself elsewhere in your code. Some death certifi‐ cates include an aggressive inquiry into the cause of death: Subject died as a result of ______, as a result of ______, as a result of ______, as a result of ______, as a result of ______. After the debugger has helped you make such an inquiry and understand your code better, you can encapsulate your understanding in more unit tests.
For example, vim users can put the cursor on a word and use K to open that word’s manpage. Compiling C Programs via Here Document At this point, you have seen the pattern of compilation a few times: 1. Set a variable expressing compiler flags. 2. Set a variable expressing linker flags, including a -l flag for every library that you use. 3. Use make or your IDE’s recipes to convert the variables into full compile and link commands. The remainder of this chapter will do all this one last time, using an absolutely mini‐ mal setup: just the shell.
21st Century C: C Tips from the New School (2nd Edition) by Ben Klemens